IX) TOGAF Learning Outcome: Architecture Views, Viewpoints, and Stakeholders

The Candidate must be able to:

1. Define and explain the following key concepts (KLP 35.1-1):

o Stakeholders
o Concerns
o Views
o Viewpoints
2. Describe a simple example of a viewpoint and view (KLP 35.1-2)
3. Discuss the relationship between stakeholders, concerns, views, and viewpoints (KLP 35.1-3)
4. Describe the view creation process (KLP 35.2-1)

VIII) TOGAF Learning Outcome: Architecture Governance (Level 1)

The Candidate must be able to:
1. Briefly explain the concept of Architecture Governance (KLP 50.1-1)
2. Describe the main concepts that make up an Architecture Governance framework (KLP 50.2-1)
3. Explain why Architecture Governance is beneficial (KLP 50.3-1)
4. Briefly explain the need for establishment of an Architecture Board (KLP 47.1-1)
5. List the responsibilities of an Architecture Board (KLP 47.2-1)
6. Briefly explain the role of Architecture Contracts (KLP 49.1-1)
7. Briefly explain the meaning of Architecture Compliance (KLP 48.2-1)
8. Briefly explain the need for Architecture Compliance (KLP 48.1-1)
9. Briefly explain the purpose of Architecture Compliance Reviews (KLP 48.3-1)
10. Briefly describe the Architecture Compliance Review process (KLP 48.4-1)
11. Briefly explain how the ADM can be used to establish an Architecture Capability (KLP 46.1-1)

Phase A: Architecture Vision

Stakeholder Map Matrix
  • Identifies the stakeholders
  • Their influence over the process
  • Their concerns that the architecture needs to address
Value Chain Diagram
  • High level orientation view of an enterprise
  • How enterprise interacts with the outside world
  • Allows high level execs to be quickly on boarded
  • Allows aligning stakeholders for a particular change initiative
  • Focuses on presentational impact
Solution Concept Diagram
  • Provides a high level orientation of the solution that is envisaged in order to meet the objectives of architecture engagement.
  • Not a formal document but a ‘pencil-sketch’ of the expected solution.
  • It highlights areas to be more formally investigated
  • Provides clarity to the execs in terms of the goals of the architecture engagement

Phase B: Business Architecture

Organization / Actor Catalog
  • Definite list of all participants that interact with IT
  • Referenced while developing requirements to test for completeness
  • Entities: Organization Unit, Actor & Location
Driver/Goal/Objective Catalog
  • Provides cross organizational reference of how an organization meets its drivers through its goals, objectives and (optionally) measures.
  • Entities: Organization unit, drivers, goals, objectives, measures(optional)
Role Catalog
  • Provides listing of all authorization levels within an enterprise
  • Serves as an input into identifying organizational change management impacts, defining job functions and executing end-user training.
  • Entities: Role
Business Service / Function Catalog
  • Provides functional decomposition in a form that can be filtered, reported on and queries.
  • Provides supplement to graphical functional decomposition diagrams
  • Entities: Organization Unit, Business service, Business function, Information System service (Optional)
Location Catalog
  • Provides listing of all locations where an enterprise does business OR hosts architectural assets
  • Entities: Location
Process/Event/
Control/Product Catalog
  • Provides hierarchy of processes
  • Provides events that trigger processes
  • Provides output from processes
  • Provides controls applied to the execution of processes
  • Supplement to the Process Flow Diagrams
  • Allows enterprise to see relationships of Processes to Sub-processes in order to identify full chain of impacts resulting from changing a high level process
  • Entities: Process, Event, Control, Product
Contract/Measure Catalog
  • Provides listing of all agreed service contracts & (optionally) measures attached to those contracts
  • Forms master list of Service Levels across enterprise
  • Entities: Business Service, Information System Service, Contract, Measure
Business Interaction Matrix
  • Shows relationships between organizations and business units across the enterprise
  • Helps highlight value chain and dependencies across organizations
  • Entities: organization, Business Function, Business Service, Business Service communicates with Business Service relationships, Business Service is dependent on Business Service relationships
Actor / Role Matrix
  • Shows which actor performs which role
  • Entities: Actor, Role, Actor performs Role relationships
Business Footprint Diagram
  • Describes links between business goals, organizational units, business functions and services
  • Maps the above to technical components delivering required capability
Business Service / Information Diagram
  • Shows information needed to support a business service
  • Shows what information is product/consumed by a business service
Functional Decomposition Diagram
  • Shows capabilities of an enterprise that are relevant to the consideration of an architecture.
Product Lifecycle Diagram
  • Shows life cycle of key entities within an enterprise
Goal / Objective / Service Diagram
  • Defines the ways in which a service contributes to the achievement of a goal or objective(business vision/strategy)
Business Use-case Diagram
  • Displays relationships between consumers and providers of business services.
Organization Decomposition Diagram
  • Describes links between actor, roles and locations within an organization tree
Process Flow Diagram
  • Shows sequential flow of control between activities
Event Diagrams
  • Shows relationship between events and process.

Phase C: Information Systems Architecture – Data Architecture

Data Entity / Data Component Catalog
  • Shows a list of all the data used across the enterprise
  • Includes data entities as well as the data components where the entities are stored.
  • Entities: Data Entity, Logical Data Component, Physical Data Component
Data Entity / Business function Matrix
  • Shows relationship between data entities and the business functions which access the data entities
Application / Data Matrix
  • Shows relationship between applications and the data entities that are accessed/updated by them.
Conceptual Data Diagram
  • Shows conceptual relationship between critical entities in an enterprise
  • Addresses concerns of business stakeholders
  • Uses Entity relationship models & simplified UML class diagrams
Logical Data Diagram
  • Logical view of the relationships between critical data entities in an enterprise
  • Addresses concerns of application developers & database designers
Data Dissemination Diagram
  • Shows relationship between data entities, business service and application components.
  • Shows how logical entities are to be physically realized by application components
Data Security Diagram
  • Shows how enterprise data is kept safe and access is suitably controlled.
  • Shows which actor/role can access which data entity
  • Can be used to show legislation compliance
Data Migration Diagram
  • Shows flow of data from source to target applications
  • Concerned with data cleansing, de-duplication, standardization, normalization etc.
Data Lifecycle Diagram
  • Shows the lifecycle of data entities across an enterprise
  • Separation of data from process allows data to be treated as first class citizen and helps identify common data requirements
Phase C: Information Systems Architecture – Application Architecture
Application Portfolio Catalog
  • Identifies and maintains a list of applications in the enterprise
  • Entities: Information System Service, Logical Application Component, Physical Application Component
Interface Catalog
  • Scopes and documents interfaces between applications
  • Enable overall dependencies between applications to be scoped
  • Entities: Logical Application Component, Physical Application Component, Application communicates with Application relationship
Application / Organization Matrix
  • Shows relationship between applications and the organization units within the enterprise
  • It is a matrix showing Logical / Physical application components on one side axis and Organizational units on the other axis.
Role / Application Matrix
  • Shows relationship between the applications and the roles within the enterprise that use them.
  • 2-dimensional matrix showing applications on one axis, and role on the other axis.
Application / Function Matrix
Application Interaction Matrix
Application Communication Diagram
Application and User Location Diagram
Application Use-Case Diagram
Enterprise Manageability Diagram
Process / Application Realization Diagram
Software Engineering Diagram
Application Migration Diagram
Software Distribution Diagram

Phase D: Technology Architecture

Technology Standards catalog
  • Documents the agreed standards for technology across the enterprise covering:
    Technologies,
    Versions,
    Technology life cycles, and
    Refresh cycles for the technology.
  • Provides snapshot of the enterprise standard technologies that are deployed
    or can be deployed.
  • Helps identify the discrepancies across the enterprise.
  • Entities:
    Platform Service,
    Logical Technology Component,
    Physical Technology Component.
Technology Portfolio catalog
  • Identifies and maintains a list of all the technology in use across enterprise
  • Includes hardware, infrastructure software & application software
  • Provides foundation on which to base remaining matrices and diagrams
  • Typically the starting point of the technology architecture phase.
  • Entities referred to include:
    Platform service,
    Logical Technology Component, and
    Physical Technology Component.
Application / Technology Matrix
  • Documents mapping of applications to technology platform.
  • This matrix shows:
    Logical / Physical Application Components,
    Services, Logical and Physical Technology Components, and
    Physical Technology Components realizes Physical Application Components.
Environment and Locations Diagram
  • Depicts which location hosts which applications.
  • Identifies what technologies and/or applications are used at which locations.
  • Identifies the locations from which business users interact with the applications.
Platform Decomposition Diagram
  • Depicts the technology platform that supports the operations of the Information Systems architecture.
  • Covers all aspects of the infrastructure platform.
  • Provides an overview of the enterprise’s technology platform.
  • It can simply be an informal ‘eye-chart’ providing an overview of the technology environment.
  • May show details of the specifications such as Product versions, #CPUs.
Processing Diagram
  • Shows how deployable units of code/configuration are deployed onto the technology platform.
  • A deployable unit represents a business function, service or application components.
  • This diagram addresses
    – Which set of application components need to be grouped to form a deployable unit.
    – how one deployable unit connects to another
    – how app config & usage requirements generate load or capacity requirements for different technology components.
Networked Computing / Hardware Diagram
  •  This diagram shows ‘as deployed’ logical view of the logical application components in a distributed network computing environment.
Communications Engineering Diagram
  •  This diagram shows the means of communication – the method of sending and receiving information – between assets in the Technology Architecture.

Phase E: Opportunities and Solutions

Process Context Diagram
Benefits Diagram

How does TOGAF define governance?

The discipline of monitoring, managing and steering a business to deliver the business outcome required.


Explain the need for ADM process to be governed

Governance ensures effective and equitable use of resources which helps an organization sustain its strategic objectives.

Describe the major information areas managed by a governance repository

The major information areas include:

  • Reference Data
  • Process status
  • Audit Information

Briefly explain the concept of Architecture Governance

Architecture Governance is the practice and orientation by which enterprise architecture and other architectures are managed and controlled at an enterprise-wide level.

Describe the main concepts that make up an architecture governance framework

An architecture governance framework, conceptually, can be described as a combination of following:

  • An approach
  • A series of processes
  • Cultural orientation
  • Set of owned responsibilities

These ensure the integrity and effectiveness of organization’s architectures

Explain why architecture governance is beneficial

An effective architecture governance benefits in following ways:

  • Links IT processes, resources and information to organization’s strategies & objectives
  • Integrates and institutionalises IT best practices
  • Aligns with industry frameworks
  • Enables optimum utilization of an organization’s information, infra and hardware & software assets
  • Protects the underlying digital assets of an organization
  • Supports regulatory and best practice requirements such as auditability, security, responsibility and accountability.
  • Promotes visible risk management

Briefly explain the role of architecture contracts

Architecture contracts are joint agreements between development partners and sponsors, and ensure the following

  • Monitoring of processes etc.
  • Adherence to processes etc
  • Risk identification
  • Ensure accountability, responsibility and discipline
  • Ensures formal understanding of the governance process

Briefly explain the need for establishment of an Architecture Board

The Architecture Board ensures implementation of the overall enterprise strategy

List the responsibilities of an Architecture Board

The main responsibilities of an Architecture Board include:

  • Providing the basis for all decision making w.r.t architectures
  • Consistency between sub-architectures
  • Establishing target for re-use of architectures
  • Flexibility of enterprise architectures to meet changing business needs & to leverage new technologies
  • Enforcement of architecture compliance
  • Improving the maturity of architecture discipline
  • Supporting visible escalation capability for out-of-bounds decisions

Explain how Architecture Governance sits within the ADM cycle

Discuss the key success factors for putting Architecture governance into practice

  • Best practices for submission, adoption, re-use, reporting and retirement of architecture policies, procedures, roles, skills, organization structures and support services
  • Organizational responsibilities & structures to support architecture governance
  • Integration of tools & processes to facilitate take-up of processes, both procedurally & culturally.
  • Criteria for control of architecture governance processes, dispensations, compliance assessments, SLAs and OLAs.
  • Internal and external requirements for effectiveness, efficiency, confidentiality, integrity, availability, compliance and reliability of all architecture governance-related information, services and processes.

On Saturday 8th of September 2012, we booked a car from Europcar Madrid to go on a sightseeing trip to Avila & Segovia. Along with the car, we had few extras like a baby seat (for our 2 year old daughter) and a GPS as we were new to the place.

Firstly I booked a VW Polo, but the car given to me was a Lancia which was the worst car I had ever driven, The pick up was almost like a 800 cc car.

After 80 KM of driving, the car had a flat tyre because of a puncture. I called the number on the pamphlet, and the lady on the phone explained that a pickup truck would be on the way within 30 minutes. Also, since the Europcar Avila branch was closed, we had no option but to take the taxi back to Madrid. And, get a new car from Madrid.

The pick up truck arrived within 30 minutes, and loaded the car in. He asked me to speak to the local Europcar person from the walkie talked inside the pickup truck. She told me that there was a car available in Avila, and asked me to take the baby car seat & GPS out of the current car, so we could use in the new car. This made me feel a little better in the hope that my day was not entirely going to be a waste.
        Since there were 3 of us, and we could not fit in the pick up truck, Europcar Avila employee said that she was going to arrange a Taxi to pick us up from that spot.

The taxi never arrived.
   
We waited for 45 minutes for a taxi to pick us up. It had started to rain and standing there with a 2 year old was not an option for much longer. So, I called the Europcar Avila office number, but no one would pick up the phone. After making 5-6 phone calls, and getting no answer, I decided to take my own taxi and go to the local office (which took 5 minutes) – in centro commercial in Avila. And guess what – The office is CLOSED.

How can it take 45 minutes to arrange a taxi, when the office was only 5 minutes away. ?

Who was this person from Europcar Avila office who lied to me about the car in Avila ?

On arriving at the Europcar Avila office and finding the office closed, I made another call to the number on pamphlet and explained the situation to the person. His first instinct was to tell me that I should have waited where I was asked to. Fair enough, but how long would you wait? I was certainly not going to spend my life waiting for a taxi there. Anyways, he said he had to speak to his superior, and that he was going to call me in 5 minutes.

Another wait. – this time for 30 minutes & no information again. After 30 minutes, I make another call and speak to another person. This person finally comes out with the truth that Europcar Avila does not have a car & is obviously closed (I am standing in front of the office). And, the only option is to come back to Madrid in a taxi.

So, the only thing I did in Avila for 3-4 hours was to either wait for Europcar to pick me up, on phone with Europcar, or going to Europcar office,. And, all this while I am stuck with a Europcar baby car seat & GPS.

If I were not stuck with the baby car seat, I could have managed to do some sight seeing in Avila, but with those things, it was absolutely impossible.

Back in Madrid at 6PM, the front office person explained that the extras like Baby Car seat & GPS have slightly different business process than the car. Hence ( I think) the reason that the Europcar Avila did not want to be responsible for those 2 items, lied to me, and cunningly got me to take those items out of the car.

The more I think about it, the more I feel that the reason for lying to me about the car in Avila was that Europcar wanted me to take the baby car seat & GPS out of broken car so the local office were not going to be responsible for it.

In all of 4 hours, Europcar did not call me even once. I had to make all the calls (on an international roaming) to get them to take any action.

The madrid office did tell me that they would look into not charging me for the trip. To be honest, getting money back is the least of my worry.

Can they reimburse me the wasted day?

Recently, I bought a PS3, and connected it to WD MyBookWorld. I was adding stuff to the external disk, and sometimes it did not show on PS3.
It was all down to the media server on WD MyBookWorld end.
Here are few things to check, if you are having similar issues:

1) Browse to the web interface of media server running on external nas drive (MyBookWorld in my case).
2) Make sure there are no ‘foreign content’ i.e. something other than Music, Videos, Pictures, etc. If you have a bit folder with loads of small files, it will make the process of indexing on NAS side very slow.
3) Normally, there is a way to tell the media server to index a specific folder for specific content. This should be quickest. i.e. make three folders – Music, Movies, Pictures, and index accordingly.
4) Make sure the indexing has happened. (from logs.)

If you are looking for a list of fonts available for you to use in your iPhone app, look no further. Here is a complete list of the fonts. You can also get the list yourselves, by using the familyNames property on UIFont and then going through the list.

Family name: Arial Hebrew
         Font name: ArialHebrew-Bold
         Font name: ArialHebrew

Family name: Zapfino
         Font name: Zapfino

Family name: Oriya Sangam MN
        Font name: OriyaSangamMN
         Font name: OriyaSangamMN-Bold

Family name: Cochin
        Font name: Cochin
        Font name: Cochin-BoldItalic
        Font name: Cochin-Italic
        Font name: Cochin-Bold

Family name: Baskerville
        Font name: Baskerville
        Font name: Baskerville-BoldItalic
        Font name: Baskerville-Italic
        Font name: Baskerville-Bold

Family name: Verdana
        Font name: Verdana-Bold
        Font name: Verdana-BoldItalic
        Font name: Verdana-Italic
        Font name: Verdana
Family name: Gurmukhi MN
        Font name: GurmukhiMN
        Font name: GurmukhiMN-Bold
Family name: Palatino
        Font name: Palatino-BoldItalic
        Font name: Palatino-Italic
        Font name: Palatino-Bold
        Font name: Palatino-Roman
Family name: Tamil Sangam MN
        Font name: TamilSangamMN-Bold
        Font name: TamilSangamMN
Family name: Marker Felt
        Font name: MarkerFelt-Wide
        Font name: MarkerFelt-Thin
Family name: Courier New
        Font name: CourierNewPS-BoldMT
        Font name: CourierNewPS-ItalicMT
        Font name: CourierNewPS-BoldItalicMT
        Font name: CourierNewPSMT
Family name: Courier
        Font name: Courier-Oblique
        Font name: Courier
Font name: Courier-Bold
Font name: Courier-BoldOblique
Family name: DB LCD Temp
Font name: DBLCDTempBlack
Family name: Trebuchet MS
Font name: TrebuchetMS-Italic
Font name: Trebuchet-BoldItalic
Font name: TrebuchetMS
Font name: TrebuchetMS-Bold
Family name: Arial Rounded MT Bold
Font name: ArialRoundedMTBold
Family name: Bangla Sangam MN
Font name: BanglaSangamMN
Font name: BanglaSangamMN-Bold
Family name: Telugu Sangam MN
Font name: TeluguSangamMN
Font name: TeluguSangamMN-Bold
Family name: American Typewriter
Font name: AmericanTypewriter-Bold
Font name: AmericanTypewriter
Family name: Arial
Font name: ArialMT
Font name: Arial-ItalicMT
Font name: Arial-BoldMT
Font name: Arial-BoldItalicMT
Family name: Hiragino Kaku Gothic ProN
Font name: HiraKakuProN-W3
Font name: HiraKakuProN-W6
Family name: AppleGothic
Font name: AppleGothic
Family name: Heiti SC
Font name: STHeitiSC-Light
Font name: STHeitiSC-Medium
Family name: Malayalam Sangam MN
Font name: MalayalamSangamMN-Bold
Font name: MalayalamSangamMN
Family name: Thonburi
Font name: Thonburi
Font name: Thonburi-Bold
Family name: Helvetica
Font name: Helvetica-BoldOblique
Font name: Helvetica
Font name: Helvetica-Oblique
Font name: Helvetica-Bold
Family name: Futura
Font name: Futura-CondensedExtraBold
Font name: Futura-MediumItalic
Font name: Futura-Medium
Family name: Gujarati Sangam MN
Font name: GujaratiSangamMN-Bold
Font name: GujaratiSangamMN
Family name: Heiti K
Font name: STHeitiK-Medium
Font name: STHeitiK-Light
Family name: Devanagari Sangam MN
Font name: DevanagariSangamMN-Bold
Font name: DevanagariSangamMN
Family name: Heiti TC
Font name: STHeitiTC-Light
Font name: STHeitiTC-Medium
Family name: Sinhala Sangam MN
Font name: SinhalaSangamMN
Font name: SinhalaSangamMN-Bold
Family name: Kannada Sangam MN
Font name: KannadaSangamMN-Bold
Font name: KannadaSangamMN
Family name: Georgia
Font name: Georgia-BoldItalic
Font name: Georgia-Italic
Font name: Georgia-Bold
Font name: Georgia
Family name: Heiti J
Font name: STHeitiJ-Medium
Font name: STHeitiJ-Light
Family name: Times New Roman
Font name: TimesNewRomanPS-BoldMT
Font name: TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT
Font name: TimesNewRomanPS-BoldItalicMT
Font name: TimesNewRomanPSMT
Family name: Geeza Pro
Font name: GeezaPro
Font name: GeezaPro-Bold
Family name: Helvetica Neue
Font name: HelveticaNeue-Bold
Font name: HelveticaNeue-BoldItalic
Font name: HelveticaNeue
Font name: HelveticaNeue-Italic

In order to dismiss keyboard linked to programmatically built UITextField, follow the following steps:

Step 1:
Make sure your view is like below:

@interface PlayView : UIViewController <UITextFieldDelegate> {

Step 2:

userTextField.delegate = self;

The delegate for the dynamically built UITextFIeld should be set to self.

Step 3:

If you want to hide the keyboard in response to "Done" key:

– (BOOL)textFieldShouldReturn:(UITextField *)textField {
[textField resignFirstResponder];
return YES;
}

Step 4:
If you want to hide keyboard in response to some custom function, use below:
 [textField resignFirstResponder];
textField = Object representing the UITextField.

If you come across the below error while building iPhone application, don’t panic.

expected specifier-qualifier-list before ‘NSManagedObjectModel’

You need to go to your projects _Prefix.pch file and include Core data library like this:

#import

This should resolve the problem.

Thanks.